The BIZ Top-Level Domain: Ten Years Later

TitleThe BIZ Top-Level Domain: Ten Years Later
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsHalvorson, T., Szurdi J., Maier G., Felegyhazi M., Kreibich C., Weaver N., Levchenko K., & Paxson V.
Other Numbers3281

On May 15, 2001 ICANN announced the introduction of the biz andinfo generic top-level domains (gTLDs)—the first new gTLDs since the inceptionof the Domain Name System—aiming to “increase consumer choice andcreate opportunities for entities that have been shut out under the current namestructure.” The biz gTLD, in particular, was to become an alternative to the popularcom top-level domain.In this paper we examine the current usage of the biz gTLD in order to determinewhether it has evolved into the role intended by ICANN, and whether concernsexpressed in the early discussions of this expansion have been justified. In particular,using DNS zone files, DNS probing, and Web crawler data, we attemptto answer the question of whether biz has become a viable alternative to com,giving trademark holders who find themselves unable to register a com name anattractive alternative; or whether it has merely induced defensive registrations byexisting trademark holders who already had equivalent com domains.


This work was partially supported by funding provided to ICSI through National Science Foundation grants CNS : 0905631 (“Invigorating Empirical Network Research via Mediated Trace Analysis”), CNS : 1111672 ("Measuring and Modeling the Dynamics of Ipv4 Address Exhaustion"). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors or originators and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Additional funding was provided by the Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Diesnst (DAAD) through a postdoctoral fellowship.

Bibliographic Notes

Proceedings of the 13th Passive and Active Measurement Conference (PAM 2012), Vienna, Austria

Abbreviated Authors

T. Halvorson, J. Szurdi, G. Maier, M. Felegyhazi, C. Kreibich, N. Weaver, K. Levchenko, and V. Paxson

ICSI Research Group

Networking and Security

ICSI Publication Type

Article in conference proceedings